Ecosystem- A particular location on Earth distinguished by its mix of interacting biotic and abiotic components. • Producers/ Autotrophs-organisms that use the energy of the Sun to produce usable forms of energy • photosynthesis- the process by which producers use solar energy to convert CO2 and water into glucose. • cellular respiration- the process by which cells convert glucose and oxygen into energy, carbon dioxide, and water.
Consumers/ Heterotrophs- An organism that must obtain its energy by consuming other organisms • primary consumers-an individual incapable of photosynthesis; must obtain energy by consuming other organisms • secondary consumers-a carnivore that eats primary consumers • tertiary consumers-a carnivore that eats secondary consumers • trophic levels-levels in yhe feeding structure of organisms.
Higher trophic levels consume organisms from lower trophic levels • food chain- The sequence of consumption from producers through tertiary consumers. • food web- A complex model of energy and matter move between trophic levels.
Scavengers-a carnivore that consumes dead animals • Detritivores- an organism that specializes in breaking down dead tissues and waste products into smaller particles.
• Decomposers- Fungi or bacteria that recycle nutrients from dead tissues and wastes back into the ecosystem. • gross primary productivity (GPP)- The total amount of solar energy that producers in an ecosystem capture via photosynthesis over a given amount of time. • net primary productivity (NPP)-the energy captured by producers in an ecosystem minusthe energy the producers respire • Biomass- The total mass of living matter in a specific area.• standing crop • Ecological efficiency- The proportion of consumed energy • trophic pyramid • Biosphere- The region of our planet where life resides, the combination of all ecosystems on earth. • biogeochemical cycles-The movements of matter within and between ecosystems. • hydrologic cycle- The movement of water through the biosphere. • Transpiration-the release of water from leaves during photosynthesis • evapotranspiration- The combined amount of evaporation and transpiration.
Runoff-water that moves across the land surface and into streams and rivers • Macronutrients-the six key elements that organisms need in relatively large amounts: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur • limiting nutrients-nutrients required for the growth of organisms but available in lower quantities than other nutrients • nitrogen fixation-a process by which some organisms can convert nitrogen gas molecules directly into ammonia • leaching-the transportation of dissolved molecules through the soil via groundwater • disturbance- An event, caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents, resulting in population size or community composition.
Watershed-all land in a given landscape that drains into a particular stream, river, lake or wetland • Resistance measure of how much a disturbance can affect flows of energy and matter in an ecosystem • Resiliencethe rate at which an ecosystem returns to its original state after a disturbance • restoration ecologythe study and implementation of restoring damaged ecosystems • intermediate disturbance hypothesis- The hypothesis that ecosystems experiencing intermediate levels of disturbance are more diverse than those with high or low disturbance levels. • instrumental value- Something that has worth as an instrument or a tool that can be used to accomplish a goal • intrinsic value- • provisions-good that humans can use directly