It is extremely helpful to use the numerical scale for quantifying pain severity for a patient in order to best asses a pain’s origin and severity, thus allowing for the most accurate diagnosis and pain treatment. 4. The term “putting a joint back into place” indicates moving the bone back into the synovial joint (its proper place). The “pop” sound occurs due to gas bubbles (nitrogen) escaping from the synovial fluid. 5. Both the shoulder joint and the hip joint are ball-and-socket joints, but the hip joint does not have as large a range of motion when compared to the shoulder joint.
The shoulder joint is not just a bony socket, but is comprised of several tendons/muscles (as previously mentioned), synovial fluid, tendon sheaths and hyaline cartilage. Issue #3: Eye problems 1. The term for someone who has problems seeing close objects but can see objects far away is “hyperopia” or farsightedness. 2. Contrarily, “myopia” or nearsightedness is the condition of being able to see objects up close but not ones far away.
3. David appears to have hyperopia, since he needs to hold a paper at arm’s length to be able to read.
Issue #4: Muscle Physiology 1. The cause of the muscle cramping is hyponatremia or low blood sodium, which may have occurred by the young girl drinking a lot of water in the hot sun to try and stay hydrated, but which caused an electrolyte imbalance in her body, thus resulting in muscle cramps. 2. The muscle cramps will go away once she drinks the salt water, which will restore the necessary electrolyte balance in her body. Issue #5: Muscle Physiology Child Case History 1.
The hereditary X-linked recessive disease characterized by progressive muscular weakness is called muscular dystrophy, or Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). 2. “Dystrophy” refers to the degeneration of, in this case, muscles. 3. Muscles in the leg involved in walking “on the toes” are the illopsoas, gastrocnemius and soleus. As these muscles weaken, the plantar flexors in the foot take over the job of walking. 4. The trunk muscles that weaken in certain cases of lordosis (sway back) and abdominal protuberance are the lower back muscles (erector spinae), hip flexors, abdominal muscles and the hamstrings.