Answered! Primary Task Response: Within the Discussion Board area, write 400–600 words that respond to the following…

Primary Task Response: Within the Discussion Board area, write 400–600 words that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. This will be the foundation for future discussions by your classmates. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas.

Use the library and Internet to search for information about network traffic management in distributed networks, and address the following:

Based on your research, select a specific approach to be used to reduce network congestion.

Describe how the selected approach works.

Summarize some of the advantages and disadvantages of using this method of network traffic management.

Expert Answer

 Network Management in Distributed Systems

A distributed system is defined as a system that consists of several autonomous computers that communicate through a computer network. Usually there is a common goal that all these networked computers try to achieve. A computer program that runs in a distributed system is called a distributed program, and distributed programming is the process of writing such programs. The same definitions could be rewritten by considering different types of computing devices instead of only computers in traditional sense. With the advancements of micro-electronics, many low-resource computing devices have been devised that can form useful distributed systems. One of the most recent attractive technologies is wireless sensor networks. Sensors are small computing devices that form a distributed system or network over a target area to collect and process required data. The workloads and network traffic in such type of distributed system could be divided among the participants. Thus, sensor network becomes a major type of distributed system. Other commonly known distributed systems are various types of telecommunications networks like; telephone networks and cellular networks, computer networks such as the Internet, World Wide Web (WWW) and Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks, multiplayer online games network and virtual reality network, distributed database network, distributed information processing network (e.g. airline ticket reservation system), aircraft control system, industrial control system, clustered and grid systems. As the topics of distributed systems are very diverse and vast, many types of network management issues fall under the intended talking point of this special issue.

Network management as network layer resource signalling protocols provide a useful set of tools to dynamically install, maintain, and manipulate state in network nodes. To this end, Bless and Röhricht in their paper, Implementation and Evaluation of a NAT-Gateway for the General Internet Signalling Transport Protocol, present the design, implementation, and evaluation of an application level gateway for the General Internet Signalling Transport (GIST) protocol, which translates GIST messages in a way that allows to establish signalling sessions between any two GIST nodes across a Network Address Translation (NAT) gateway. In their work, the authors have presented evaluation results in a real testbed environment. Results show only a slight overhead for processing initial Query messages on a GIST-aware NAT gateway in the range of about 2.15ms on average. All subsequent GIST messages show almost no processing overhead and do not exceed 0.026ms on average. These findings are used to demonstrate how this work can be directly adopted in real-world implementations.

Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) is an emerging technology for next generation wireless broadband networks. Routing in WMN is one of the most challenging issues to support stringent QoS requirements of resource management applications. Sen in this paper, An Efficient and User Privacy-Preserving Routing Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks, attempt to meet the user QoS requirements while addressing security and privacy concerns in WMN, by proposing an efficient and reliable routing protocol that provides user anonymity in WMNs. The protocol is based on an accurate estimation of the available bandwidth in the wireless links and a robust estimation of the end-to-end delay in a routing path, and minimization of control message overhead. The user anonymity, authentication and data privacy is achieved via a protocol that is based on Rivest’s ring signature scheme. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate that the proposed scheme is more efficient than some of the existing routing protocols. Specifically, it has been shown that the protocol has very low overhead and has high network throughput with a large number of source nodes in a WMN.

Recent years have witnessed the development of transport layer protocols to avoid congestions in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and provide data or application level reliability support, thereby ensuring QoS requirements of heterogeneous WSN applications. In this context, Sharif et al. has proposed a light weight transport protocol in the paper, ERCTP: End-to-End Reliable and Congestion Aware Transport Layer Protocol for Heterogeneous WSN. The protocol achieves high data reliability using the distributed memory concept within network and results in minimum packet drop due to congestion by the effective implementation of congestion detection and rate adjustment scheme that uses stochastic control framework. Authors have evaluated the proposed scheme with existing transport protocols and demonstrated that it can control congestion and exhibits good throughput, limited end-to-end data packet latency, and high data packet reliability and low per packet communication cost.

Introduced in late 90’s, Grid computing provides a loosely coupled, heterogeneous and geographically dispersed distributed computing platform. With the increase of application complexities in Grid computing environments, the presence of security threats are becoming prevalent. As human administrations are unable to cope with the amount of work required to properly securely the computing infrastructure, there is the need to find innovative solutions to overpower the limitations of manual management of the system, i.e. slow speed, increasing chances of errors and unmanageability by human administrators. In this context, Chopra and Singh has presented an agent-enabled Self-Protection Model (SPM) in the paper Implementing Self-Protection in Distributed Grid Environment. This model adopts intelligent agents to dynamically organize system management with centralized control. At the system level, each element contributes its capabilities on the functions of system management and cooperate with each other to implement autonomic computing for grid systems. With this approach, the authors seek to achieve system robustness and scalability, that has been demonstrated in the results from the conducted simulation experiments.

Measures to control network congestion :

There are many measures to control congestion . One of them is segmentation:

Segmentation :

Segmenting a network is a process in computer networking. The process is to divide your network into smaller sub-networks

By segmenting, you can now reduce network congestion in specific areas of your network. Not having to guess where the congestion is occurring.

The basic implementation of network segmentation, or the creation of network “segments,” involves using hubs, routers and possibly security software such as firewalls to isolate particular clusters of computers from the rest of the network. In doing so, you create a noncontiguous network. This means that unlike a typical network in which all computers share access to the Internet through a common Internet Protocol address without any differentiation, segments are sectioned off as separate entities within the network, even though they may have a common Internet source.

One advantage of segmenting a network is traffic efficiency. When computers communicate with one another, they send bits of data called “packets” containing the content of communication as well as information about the sender and receiver. If two computers send each other data at the same time — or if multiple computers send data to each other — “packet collision” can occur, which garbles the information sent and ruins the communication. When dealing with large unsegmented networks, all computers can communicate with all other computers, and the chance for collision arises. With a segmented network, computers can, under most circumstances, communicate within segments, thus lessening the volume of traffic on the general network and reducing the chances of packet collision

Advantages :

·        No internal fragmentation

·        May save memory if segments are very small and should not be combined into one page.

·        Segment tables: only one entry per actual segment as opposed to one per page in VM

·        Average segment size >> average page size

·        Less overhead.

Disadvantages :

·        External fragmentation.

·        Costly memory management algorithms.

·        Segmentation: find free memory area big enough.

·        Paging: keep list of free pages, any page is ok.

·        Segments of unequal size not suited as well for swapping.

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