Abstract—Using Teaching Computer Structure by ZvonkoVranesic Essay

Abstract—Using Teaching Computer Structure by Zvonko

Vranesic niversity of Toronto, Conceptual Framework & Architecture

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by S.S.Reddi W.W.Gaertner Research,inc

Computer architecture is concerned with the functional

structure of hardware as seen through the eyes of the programmer.

It also involves only those aspects of a computer

that have a direct impact on the logical execution of the

program. Computer organization this involves hardware details

essentially transparent to the programmer.

The computer architecture is the professional of adopting

present day technology to the solution of current computing

problems and of dreaming about the future,The computer

architect designs the external specifications, gross data flow,

and gross sequencing of a system or a shift of register.

These results illustrate how computer structure & architecture

have different views but same goal towards the solving the

problems facing society on economy level & educational.


That is to say structural principals of computer are an

essential part of modern university computer science and

electrical engineering programs. While computer architecture

is receiving and will continue to receive special attention as

novel architecture differing from the classic Von Neumann

organization emerge as viable approaches to the problem

of increasing computational speeds and cost-effectiveness

of computer systems. First we deal with issues pertinent

to courses in which the main objective is to introduce

students to fundamental material. Second, we consider a

more specialized level of hardware treatment. Where interconnection

and classification of more are highlighted. In this

paper we present a conceptual viewpoint that a coherent and

unified treatment of computer architecture. We believe that

a computer architecture can be viewed as composed of 1)

physical organization; 2) control and flow of information;

and 3) representation, interpretation and transformation of

information, and develop a framework for architecture based

on this viewpoint. To show how to associate architecture concepts

and innovations with these three components. We then

develop architecture concepts that a system architect can use

and verify that these concepts can be accommodated within

our framework. Finally, we indicate how our hypothesis can

lead to the concept of dynamic system architecture.


Interpretation of computer architecture & computer organization

The computer architecture is the professional of

adopting present day technology to the solution of current

computing problems and of dreaming about the future

according to Zvonko Vranesic says computer architecture

is concerned with the functional structure of hardware as

seen through the eyes of the programmer. However it also

involves only those aspects of a computer that have a direct

impact on the logical execution of the program. Computer

organization involves hardware details essentially transparent

to the programmer. These includes the control mechanism

and associated signaling, bus interface, and the internal structure

of the storage units. Moreover, computer organization

involves interfacing details of related peripheral devices. It

has been fairly common academic practices to emphasis on

computer architecture than on computer organization. A further

point: it is hardly appropriate to talk about significantly

microprocessor architecture that are reflected in the number

of distinct implementation models.

On the contrary a framework of computer architecture

a computer architecture are directly traceable to its multifunction

nature. Since computer architecture can be viewed

from different perspectives, each individual forsea’s his own

notion and interpretation.

There are three components of architectures & architectural

firstly; Physical organization; in addition; Control &

flow of information; finally; Representation, interpretation

& transformation of information. From thus components it

helps the system be more efficiency, protection and data

privacy on a software system.

On the other hand physical organization is a technological

advanced archived in the past decade enable architects to

propose many innovative physical organizations for computer

systems, some of which may have already been used and put

into practice. While physical organization may ne present

during the early we also have few computer systems that

exist. To begin with we have CDC 6600 Central Processor

Organization; in second place we have ILLIAC IV; more

over we have TI ASC Texas instruments Advanced Science


That is to say the control of flow of information the aspect

of control mechanisms and schemes used for controlling and

directing the systems information flow. Besides the information

processing capabilities of a computer system depend to

a large extent on how the system interprets and represents

the information. Also in this section we consider different

type of representation, interpretation, and transformation of

information that a computer may use. Representation, and

interpretation instructions, Is the information flow and reflect

the structure and capabilities of the system. One of the

principal duties of the computer architect is to develop

a comprehensive instruction set which is simple to use

but exploits the system resources to their fullest extent.

Representation and interpretation data, Representation in a

precise, formalized language of some facts or concepts, often

numeric or alphabetic values, are also in a manner which can

be manipulated by a computational method. Transformation

(or Dynamic representation) of information, The representation

of information can be static or dynamic. However, a

computer may be used to determine dynamically the changes

in the representation of information that are needed for user

convenience, system efficiency, and privacy. Programs are

usually represented at the user level in high level languages.

They claim there several different approaches to teaching

computer organization. On the other hand instruction tend to

be strongly opinionated about which is the best approach; in

the following discussion we consider the relative merits of on

what approach, namely, the descriptive approach, which relies

closely related to real, commercially available machines.

The major advantage is that to become familiar with some

commercially available products, being clearly desirable now

that practical aspects of university are being emphasized

through digital system design, specially computer design, is

still not a science is the traditional sense it is an art so optimal

solution rarely exist. There for study of real design leads

to a better appreciation of the trade involved. In addition

to understand the architecture structures, student can gain

some feeling for electronic and economic aspects as well as

functionality, speed of operation or performance. Maintaining

ability, and cost are basic criteria that can be properly

discussed within the frame work of a real machine. The ability

to gain experience and be acquainted structural concept

and typically leads to insights into related side issues.Either

it contains fairly extensive assembly languages (Hypothetical

computers), Not only there is no single computer illustrates

but also the desired concepts, on any computer that has some

unappealing features. If a single machine is used, student

can leave with the impression that no other viable machines

exist. These difficulties can be overcome by drawing more

than one computer architecture; eg: one may use the PDP-11

architecture as the basic frame work of discussion, illustrate

input/output processor scheme from the IBM 370 channels.

Discussion of commercially available architecture can be

carried out to dangerous or extreme, general principal are

totally masked by the details of particular.

They claim that physical and control elements contribute

to the desired objective to create new control paths among

the physical resources of a computer system has been exploit

since it is present in hardware programs it increase the

system’s performance.The advantage of this feature is that

the user is offered models of varying performance indices

and storage capacities.Neither the disadvantage is that the

models lose some of their performance in maintaining compatibility.

However the user sees the architecture of the system

as the central processor consists of sixteen general registers

and four floating point registers. The general registers can be

used to hold operands or as index and base address registers.

There is no one fixed memory organization for all the

models. Models 155 and 165 provide 4K buffer storage

systems in addition to their main storage units. The buffer

and main storage are organized into rows and columns.As

for this section we discuss the advantages and disadvantages

of some architectural concepts. At first view they may appear

to be totally unrelated to each other; however a little thought

will reveal that each of these concepts can be categorized

under one or a combination of the three components of

architecture. To begin with array Organization- The array organization

is very effective in exploiting parallelism when the

characteristics of the problem to be solved match the physical

structure. Then the Pipeline Organization- This organization

consists of functional units arranged in a pipeline where

each functional unit handles a particular task. Finally Modular

Organization- This organization consists of independent

functional units (capable of performing specialized tasks).

An advantage of this type of organization is the enhanced

performance obtainable by using overlap and distributed

function computation.

Now we briefly consider some of the problems and tradeoffs

an architect faces in evolving an architecture. These

considerations are discussed within the framework of the

three components of architecture. Assume that the architect

decides to make the computer system provide the capacity

of ten processing units.

In fact a computer user is becoming increasingly aware

of the effect of architecture on system performance. This is

to say they realizes that the array organization is ideal for

solving relaxation problems, that the pipeline organization

is effective in handling matrix and vector operations, and

that stack processing makes it easier to compile and execute

algorithims programs. Since no single architecture can satisfy

the needs of all users, it has become desirable to have

a computer system whose architecture can be defined and

varied dynamically.

To look at this another way computer design is an

engineering endeavor which is subject to many practical

constraints and scientifically pure goals are economically

unfeasible dreams. It is probably best to accept this reality,

at list for the time being, and make sure that we teach

our students what present computers are really like, since

ideal machine are still a long way to go to the next future

generation of technology.

We have also information tagging this is dynamic, interactive

and full of information that a user metadata is define in

the system. It is also basically a language machine suggesting

tagging of data and address for identification for the machine

to identify the specific information being process on the

system. According to S.S.Reddi he explains the emution

function on a computer system which is a combination of

hardware and software approach towards the modeling of

physical behavior of one machine to another.

The emulation is the main principle used to offer variable

architectures to the user. But emulation is slow and inefficient

and would defeat our purpose, which is to speed up computation

with dynamic architecture. Using our three component

approach to architecture, it is possible to create a system with

dynamic organization. The user can specify the architecture

he requires in terms of the three components, and the system

will provides this architecture by introducing few changes in

its control and data paths and by altering its representation

and interpretation of information. The speed requirements

that these changes be executed at hardware level. The a

system propose where it’s possibility to structure a system

resources as a pipeline, an array, or in any configuration the

user may want. Structuring is accomplished by dynamically

establishing bus paths between the resources. This is to

say physical element of architecture is ’altered’ by suitable

control of information flow. Similarly, to other components

of architecture can be altered. For instance, information flow

can be controlled to exhibit a stack or non stack structure

depending on the program environment.By attaching tags to

operands and interpreting them dynamically, we can obtain

an architecture in which the third component is a variable.


To summarise both writers Zvonko Vranesic & S.S.Reddi

had a very challenging views on framework architectural

and computer organization on the impact to the society and

especially in students and economically both insisted there

is a reason to purse on the approach in computer courses

the both had a different ideas on how this systems should be

pursued on there own research and time.

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