It creates a lot of pollution on burning the waste in presence of oxygen (ie .Due to fumes production)
Spread of diseases as the waste is dumped in open space.
Ample amount of area is required to landfill huge amount of waste.
Need of alternative fuel.
The efforts taken by the farmer is quite high but the output is very low comparatively .
The real life applications of the knowledge that we have achieved.
Objectives and Scope:-
To reduce the mass of solid waste (organic).
To utilize renewable form of energy i.e. solar energy.
To have an easy operations and small maintenance as well.
Bio fuel can be produced as well.
To reduce the landfill area.
To achieve low cost with less maintenance.
To utilize the by-products ie. Bio fuel & flammable gas effectively.
To provide a solution on generation of the dry residues.
The burning of the agricultural dry residue in the open environment leaves carbon footprints in the environment.
The other way in which the management of the dry residues is done by landfilling. This lead to the decomposition of the woods by fungus and it indirectly results into the carbon prints. The burning of the dry residues results into the release of the particulate matter into the atmosphere which led to the pollution.
Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials. Incineration and other high-temperature waste treatment systems are described as ” thermal treatment “. Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash , flue gas and heat. The ash is mostly formed by the inorganic constituents of the waste and may take the form of solid lumps or particulates carried by the flue gas.
In some cases, the heat generated by incineration can be used to generate electric power . Incineration with energy recovery is one of several waste-to-energy technologies such as gasification , pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion . While incineration and gasification technologies are similar in principle, the energy produced from incineration is high-temperature heat whereas combustible gas is often the main energy product from gasification.
Incineration and gasification may also be implemented without energy and materials recovery. Incineration reduces the waste down to approximately 25 to 30% of the original solid waste input and produces two types of resultant ash-bottom ash and fly ash & remaining matter is used as a landfill, but landfill was an economically viable option in the 1990s due to the availability of land and cheap disposal costs, but with the introduction landfill levies and pressure on available land, landfill is no longer economically feasible.
The simplest technique to burn the waste matter is gasification-Gasification in its simplest definition is the conversion of Solid Carbonaceous fuel into combustible gas (main by CO & H2) by partial combustion i.e. combustion in the presence of limited air.
The mixture of combustible gases thus produced is termed Producer Gas. It is also called as Low Btu Gas or Low Calorie Gas, because of its low energy content. This gas is good enough for use in S.I. Engine or C.I. Engine. Since it is a Low Calorie Gas, It not possible to run C.I. Engine on 100% gas. A pilot jet is necessary for ignition. However an S.I. Engine can run on 100% gas because of presence of an ignition source namely spark plug.
The producer gas can be generated from charcoal, coke, coal, wood peat or from agricultural wastes such as corn, cobs, ground nut shells, rice husk, saw dust and bagasse etc.
Properties of gas generated are given below:
Up to 3%
Gas C.V.in kcal/Nm 3
Gas generated in Nm 3 / kg of matter
The ash produced from the incinerator is used for the following purposes:
Municipal solid-waste bottom ash is suitable to use as road base materials to partially replace aggregates. The physical properties and the designed gradation of aggregate-bottom ash mixtures meet the standard requirements.
The uncon?ned compressive strength of cement treated aggregate containing bottom ash samples increases with curing time, and the failure strain decreases with curing time
During the course of the survey, came to know about the leading agricultural incinerator manufacturer in India – Scientico .
Type of Incinerator : Solid waste Incinerator
Usage application : Agriculture
This incinerator is used for agriculture, garbage waste incinerator, Pet cremation and other solid waste.
Application Scope :
Hospital & clinical waste, infectious waste, dressing, bio-waste, medicine.
Slaughter House & pet hospital & Farm: Dead animal, Bio waste
Community, sea port & station : Municipal waste
Dual combustion chamber
5mm MS fabrication sheet
High burn rate, from 15 kgs to 1000 kgs per hour, up to 6 ton per hour
One year warranty
This is the leading incinerator in India and cost is around 30000 Rs , which is high considering the financial background of the farmers in the India. It also serves the many purposes of incineration as it has a wide range of usability as mention above. All this features are not required at the agricultural end and hence the investing in this is not affordable to many of the farmers in India.
3. SYSTEM DESIGN:-
3.1 Rough ideation of project:
Fig.no. 3.1 Rough ideation of project
The main objective of the project is to burn the waste matter in absence of oxygen
for that purpose we need the two compartments upper & lower in lower compartment the waste matter will be burned in presence of oxygen with the help of the fan/ blower as shown in the diagram above, while the upper compartment will contain the waste matter which will be burned in absence of oxygen which will produce two products at the end i.e. biochar & wood gas , this biochar can be used in agricultural purpose to enhance the soil whereas the wood gas can be used as a engine fuel as well as for many other purpose.
Fig.no. 3.2 Concept to purify gas
The above set up is useful for the purification of the gas.
The impure gas containing certain amount of impurities which are basically solid particulates will enter the system shown above as the gas will enter the upper vessel will rise up indicating the volume of gas increasing in the container while the lower container will contain the water which will help to filter the gas. The gas will then be further collected by the outlet valve & stored for the future use.
This whole set up use the principle of diffusion in order to purify the gas. The gas containing particulate matter gets diffused into the water it leads leaving behind of the particulate matter in the water. The gas entrapped leads to the rise of the pressure and it results into the lifting of the container.
Table No.3.1 Hardware requirements (Mechanical)
Gas storage container 1
Gas storage container 2
Top of boiler
Electrical Requirements :
Table no.3.2 Electrical requirements
1.5 V 100mah
DC 12V 0.20 A
80mm x 80mm x 25mm
Fig 3.3 Furnace
Fig 3.4 Porous container
Fig 3.5 Storage tank for flammable gas Fig 3.6 Gas separating mechanism
Fig 3.7 Reactors lid
Fig No 3.8 Assembly
ACTUAL MODEL & COMPONENTS:
Fig.no. 3.10 Relief valves
Fig.no. 3.11 Furnace
Fig.no.3.12 Flexible pipe
Fig.no. 3.13 Fan fixed in a section
Fig.no.3.14 Section to insert raw material
Fig.no. 3.15 Actual model
Fig.no.3.16 Top view
Fig No 3.17 12V Power supply design
Solar panel to run the fan-
Fig 3.18 Solar panel & fan connection
All the activities related to the incinerator and the user who is going to use are listed below. This activities shows the steps involved in the use of the incinerator. All the activities are listed below and their flow of sequence is shown below.
Fig 3.19 Activity Diagram
4. IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS:-
4.1 Prototyping Techniques:
Table No.4.1 Material specifications
POP (Refractory material),MS sheet
Porous aluminum sheet
Silicon & Germanium
Metals (Steel sheet)
4.2 Methodology :
The dry waste will be placed in the lower container which will be burnt in the presence of oxygen.
While the upper compartment will be airtight where the dry waste will be burnt in the absence of oxygen.
The gases produced by the anaerobic (ie. In absence of oxygen ) burning of waste are stored in the container
(Wood gas- a mixture of several flammable gases).
While the gases produced by the combustion process of the dry waste are separated by the diffusion method & stored in the separate container.
The ash produced in lower compartment is removed out.
The solar powered fan / blower is used in the lower compartment in order to put the sufficient amount of the air (Oxygen) into the system for the burning purpose.
Whereas the biochar produced in the burning of the dry waste in upper compartment can be used as the source for enrichment of soil.
Whenever the fuel inside the lower chamber is utilized then refilling of the lower chamber with the fuel is need to carry out.
However whenever the dry residues waste in the upper chamber completely gets converted into the charcoal then refilling is again carried away by removing the formed charcoal.
This formed charcoal can be used as the fuel for the lower chamber as well.
5.1 wood-gas & charcoal proportion:
Table 5.1 Composition of gas & charcoal in gasifier
Wood-gas (vol. %)
Charcoal-gas (vol. %)
Gas heating value kJ/m 3
5.2 Output of project:
The two products obtained are-
Charcoal / bottom ash ( calorific value 33kJ/g) + Wood gas ( calorific value 5.78MJ/kg)
Properties of the Charcoal/ Bottom ash are-
Bio char obtained by burning agricultural waste (organic/inorganic) can be used to enrich the soil.
Bio char locks over carbon in soil for over 1000 years.
The ash produced is for suitable to use as road base materials to partially replace aggregates. The physical properties and the designed gradation of aggregate bottom ash meet the standard requirements.
It increases the compressive strength of the cement when mixed with it.
The charcoal obtained is used for filtration of water.
It have certain medical applications like- It can be used for cleaning teeth
– Medicines, capsules, etc
Properties of wood gas are-
Composition -( N2, 50.9%; CO, 27.0%; H2, 14.0%; CO2, 4.5%; CH4, 3.0%; O2, 0.6%.)
There is the production of the combustible gas named wood gas, which is a flammable gas & can be stored & used as per the application.
The mixture of combustible gases thus produced is termed Producer Gas / Wood gas. It is also called as Low Btu Gas or Low Calorie Gas, because of its low energy content.
This gas is good enough for use in S.I. Engine or C.I. Engine. Since it is a Low Calorie Gas, It not possible to run C.I. Engine on 100% gas. A pilot jet is necessary for ignition. However an S.I. Engine can run on 100% gas because of a presence of an ignition source namely spark plug.
Hence this wood gas is also called as the engine fuel.
6. BILL OF MATERIALS:-
Table No.6.1 Bill of material
POP (Refractory material),MS Sheet
Porous aluminum sheet
Silicon & germanium
PVC Pipe( 2mm thick)
PVC Pipe(2mm thick)
Total estimated cost: RS. 2000 omponent Components
7. FUTURE SCOPE:-
Though this incinerator has added many features to it by changing the design and the way of functioning of the current incinerator. They are still chances of the improvements in the design in order to achieve the most effective system and to reduce the percentage of the waste generation.
This incinerator generate the two byproduct ash and charcoal. This byproducts can be eliminated by incorporating same changes in the design. The charcoal obtained can be used as fuel in the lower chamber, for that the design of the upper chamber can be done such that lifting arrangement should be there once the gas is synthesized then the charcoal gets introduced into the system.
The other advancement can be the done in the purification system. Instead of using the diffusion set up swirl air filter can be used. As the diffusion requires the more space and the water need to be replaced as it gets contaminated.
The solar power can be used in more effective way by attaching more boiler in order to achieve the maximum efficiency in burning the fuel.
The changes in the material of the set up can be done in order to reduce the overall the over weight of the set up. The use of the advanced refractory material can be used in order to reduce the losses during the convection and conduction. The efficiencies of the synthesized gas can be increased by heating the wood at very high temperature. The wood gas contains the mono-oxide due to low heating of the wood from which gas needs to be synthesized. The special set up can be arranged to the outlet of the gas from where mono-oxide can be extracted. This are all the advancement that can be incorporated in this design.
After the completion of this project we came to the conclusion that for completing any project successfully we need have a proper planning of everything starting from design to its functionality. We also need to carefully recognize the users requirements as well as engineering requirements and its targets. Above all a proper team working is also very crucial as completing the project on time is our first priority and not to undermine the fact that unless we dont have the right materials and components in right time we cant achieve the targets that we have set at the beginning of our design.
In todays era a market based economy is the success factor for any walks of life and work and to have that position we need to have a distinctive way of approach towards a product. Innovation is one of the tool that has always been helpful in achieving that state, hence in our model the changes that we would made that there will the use of lighter material for reducing its overall weight also finding out the most efficient technique to store & pressurize the wood gas is one of the greatest challenge that can be overcome.