023 Understand Child and Young Person development Essay

Age range Explain the sequence and rate of development 0-3 months When born, babies show innate reflexes, such as swallowing and sucking, rooting reflex, grasp reflex, startle reflex, walking and standing reflex; in the first month babies become less curled up and the startle reflex is starting to fade; toward the end of the third month babies start lifting and turning their heads. 3-6 months

When lying on front babies can lift their arms and legs balancing on their tummies; they can reach and grab a toy and they can pass it from one hand to another; they can also roll from their backs to front; around sixth month babies are becoming able to sit with support (e.

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g. high chair). 6-9 months Babies can sit without support; they are beginning to crawl or find other ways of being mobile (bottom-shuffling); starting to use fingers to feed. 9-12 months

Babies are becoming very mobile, fast crawling, standing up by the furniture, some babies walk along the furniture using their hands to hold on; developing abilities to handle objects and putting them into containers; babies able to feed themselves with fingers.

1-2 years At the beginning of this period babies are beginning to walk and around 18 months they are becoming more and more skilful on their feet, moving faster; toddlers around this age begin to sit and push with their legs to move on the sit-and-ride toys.

Towards their second year children walk confidently, they can run and climb; towards the end of the second year some children are becoming ready to start potty training. 2-4 years In the third year children start potty training; they become able to push with feet or peddle a tricycle; children can walk upstairs alternating their feet; towards the end of the this period children are skilful enough to feed and dress themselves; they are able to do threading, pouring and they can use scissors. 4-7 years Physical development less rapid, however skills are becoming more refined and movements more coordinated.

Ability to kick and control ball; development of fine motor skills essential for handwriting. 7-12 years Good coordination of small and large movements; growing physical skilfulness means task can be done quicker, more accurately and more confidently; neater drawing and writing; accurate cutting. Between 9 and 12 children gain even better coordination and speed in fine and gross motor skills. Around 11th year the bodies of some girls are starting to change (growing breasts) and some might start their periods. 12-16 years Gradual body changes in both girls and boys (girls physically mature quicker [around 15/ 16] than boys [around 17/18].

Fast body changes may affect spatial awareness which can become occasionally poor as a result. 16-19 years The maturing of the body is finishing with the full development of sexual organs; the body is taking a distinctive female or male shape. 023 Table 2: Intellectual and cognitive development Age range Explain the sequence and rate of development 0-3 months Quite early on babies are able to recognise the smell of their mother and her voice; later they become familiar with voices of important others and they can be calmed when they hear them; they are interested in faces.

In their 3rd month babies start to differentiate between day and night (settled routine); babies become interested in mobiles and other objects around them. 3-6 months Babies are becoming interested in what is happening around them, turning their head in the direction of interest; objects are being explored by hands and mouth. 6-9 months Developing fine motor skills allow babies for a better exploration of objects by handling and touching with fingers; around 8 or 9 months babies understand object permanence (objects continue to exists even when out of sight).

9-12 months Babies are more aware of what is happening around them, they are starting to understand routines through signals (bib = food) 1-2 years Children enjoy pop-up and posting toys and in their 2nd year they are starting to have a go at simple jigsaw puzzles and building bricks. 2-4 years Children pretend play with miniature world; they more interested in books, mark making and painting. In their fourth year children are able to concentrate and focus longer on activities which which caught their interest. 4-7 years

Children begin to do some simple counting and calculations, recognizing letters is followed by gradual decoding of simple words and later by reading. 7-12 years Reading and writing is becoming easier, children start reading silently to themselves. Play becomes more organized and follows rules. Development of thinking and reasoning is demonstrated through independent problem solving. 12-16 years Further development of reasoning and problem solving; children are gradually starting to understand more abstract concepts. 16-19 years

Cognitive abilities are becoming further refined, leading to high level skills in young people. 023 Table 3: Communication development Age range Explain the sequence and rate of development 0-3 months To start with babies express their hunger, tiredness or other discontent through crying; around 5th/6th week babies start to coo when content; in the third month babies start smiling and reciprocate smiles. 3-6 months Babies starting to understand a little of what is being said and they are starting to give some communication signals themselves (e. g.

raised arms when they want to be picked up). 6-9 months Babies become quite vocal, babbling with a differentiated tuneful string of sounds. They are also starting to understand various important key words connected with their routines (e. g. ?dinner? ). 9-12 months Babies clearly show they understand more of what is being said around them/ to them. Babbling is still main way of communication. 1-2 years First meaningful sounds/ words are beginning to emerge around 13 months, and at the end of 2nd year children might have a vocabulary of about 200 words. 2-4 years

Language is becoming a powerful means of communication. From connecting two words first children are beginning gradually to build up sentences and their talking is becoming understandable even to those who are not in regular contact with the child. Even though there might be the odd mistake in the sentence structure, the language toward the end of this period is becoming fluent and children ask questions and generally enjoy expressing themselves through language. 4-7 years Children are becoming involved with written language – they are starting to learn to read and write.

7-12 years Reading and writing becomes easier now; at the beginning of this period children enjoy telling jokes to others; apart from chatting, children are beginning to be able to form a simple argument and be persuasive, they are becoming increasingly able to negotiate with others. Their writing shows more grammatical awareness as well as own imagination. 12-16 years Reading and writing skills are becoming very good and children are becoming increasingly skilful in negotiating and persuasion of others (peers and adults). 16-19 years

Communication with peers is becoming very important; differentiation between formal and informal language and its use in real life is becoming more and more important; young people use different means to communicate (via phones, mobile messaging, emails, facebook, etc. ). 023 Table 4: Social, emotional and behavioural development Age range Explain the sequence and rate of development 0-3 months First social contacts are being established mainly during feeding; at the end of the first month babies start to show first smiles which then gradually become response to familiar faces.

3-6 months Babies smile and squeal with delight when playing with familiar others. 6-9 months Babies try to stay close to their primary carers and around 8 months babies may become distressed when their primary carer leaves. 9-12 months Babies are fixed on their carers and do not want to be with strangers. 1-2 years Children start notice other children around them and they show some interest in them and later start parallel play. They also start show some frustrations and tantrums as they gradually discover some boundaries. 2-4 years

Children play alongside others and may start copying their actions. Around the third year children become more aware of others and their needs which also reflects in their play which is gradually starting to be more and more cooperative. Children enjoy being praised by adults. 4-7 years Developing language is helping children to form better relationships and children begin to show some preferences in friendships. 7-12 years Friendships are becoming more stable and more important and may influence decision making (if my friend is doing something I might be more likely doing it also).

Gender specific play is becoming more apparent. Children start to compare themselves to others. Children enjoy being given some responsibilities. 12-16 years Friends and friendships are very important and gradually opinions from friends might feel more important that those of parents/ carers. This leads to exploration and challenge of the boundaries of relationships as well as learning to deal with disagreements, arguments, etc. There are anxieties coming from pressures from school. 16-19 years

Young people enjoy being with their friends, they are finding discovering their own identity and sense of belonging to a group/ groups of specific characteristics which defines for them who they are (religious groups, sport group, goth, etc. ) 023 Table 5: Moral development Age range Explain the sequence and rate of development 0-3 months 3-6 months 6-9 months 9-12 months Children might start paying attention to “no” and might stop their behaviour for a moment. 1-2 years Children are beginning to understand “no” and they start using it themselves.

2-4 years At the beginning of this phase still no understanding what is right or wrong but children understand when they are said “No”. Later they become able to follow some simple rules. Around 4 years children are becoming thoughtful at times but most of the times will decide what to do on the basis of adult approval. 4-7 years Children are beginning to understand rules; they try to understand them, follow them and may attempt to create their own rules where no rules are given (made-up game with friends). 7-12 years

Children share their knowledge of rules with others and will readily point out if someone breaks the rules. Later they are becoming more aware of behaviour consequences and they are generally becoming more thoughtful. 12-16 years Children are beginning to be aware of a bigger picture – rules of communities and societies and they are beginning to understand the need for that. 16-19 years There is a interest in moral issues, finding out that right and wrong is not always black and white. Questioning and testing of rules. A2 Answer the following questions. 1.

What is the difference between ‘sequence’ of development and ‘rate’ of development? 2. Why is the difference important? (Ref 1. 2) Q1. What is the difference between a sequence of development and rate of development? Sequence of development is the order in which development occurs, e. g. children are able to sit before they learn to crawl. The order of the sequences in development are always the same (even though there might be some individual differences: babies always learn to move about before standing up and walking, but some babies bottom-shuffle instead of crawling).

Rate, on the other hand, is the speed in which individuals go through the stages/ sequences of development. Most children learn to walk when they are about 12 months old. However, some babies might be ready to walk when they are 10 months old and others when they are 15 months old. Individuals might also be developing with different rate in different areas, e. g. some children might be developing quickly physically, but their speech might be delayed. These individual differences are results of genetic predispositions and other biological influences as well as environmental stimulation.

Q2. Why is the difference important? Knowing the sequences of development in different areas is important for practitioners to be able to plan accordingly and therefore to support the development in individuals. The rate of the development is important in terms of recognizing any atypical development and recommending/ searching any additional interventions when needed. TASK B Complete table; Research and report B1 Complete a table as shown on the following page, identifying the different personal and external factors that influence children and young people’s development.

(Ref 2. 1, 2. 2) B2 Produce a report to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of differing theories of development. This report should identify how these theories have influenced current practice and include the following: Cognitive (e. g. Piaget) Psychoanalytic (e. g. Freud) Humanist (e. g. Maslow) Social learning (e. g. Bandura) Operant conditioning (e. g. Skinner) Behaviourist (e. g. Watson) Social pedagogy. Over the years there have been many theories trying to explain certain aspects of development, behaviour, learning, etc.

In the following text we will look at the most influential theories which are being used by practitioners in better understanding as well as day to day work with children and young people. After a brief description of how an individual theory was founded, we will discuss the key points for work at nurseries. Theory of cognitive development (Constructivist approach) Theory of cognitive development is connected with the name of Jean Piaget (1896-1980) who through work on intelligence tests started to notice how children at same stages make very similar mistakes in their tasks and problem solving approaches.

Piaget then closely observed his own children, capturing their development in details and later using these observations to create a theory of cognitive development. Piaget considered children as active learners who create ? schemas? (believes) about the world based on their experiences. This is how they make sense about what is happening around them. However, a child? s schemas are going to be challanged time to time by new and unexpected experiences and as a result existing schema will have to adapted to fit these in (e. g.

touching something hot will alter the notion that everything is safe to touch and child will learn that certain objects can hurt when being touched). Piaget? s theory influenced the practice by having a ? child-centred? approach. In our setting, for example, we make regular observations on what our children are interested in and what they like to play/ do. After careful evaluations and identifications of possible next steps of development we plan activities which as well as reflecting children? s interest also further challenge them to encourage the development.

Psychoanalytic theory of personality Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) suggested that every personality has got three parts to it – id, ego and superego. We all are born with id, which is the part of our personality that is driven by our desires and reflects in pleasure-seeking behaviour. Id is selfish and passionate and it is purely after satisfying its needs, known as ? gratification?. However, through social contact and learning babies/children gradually learn to be aware of the outside world and eventually of needs of others.

They will be developing ego, which is able to plan the actions so the needs of the individual can still be met but in more socially desired way, e. g. ability to wait for once turn when the food is being served at pre-school settings. This is called ? differed gratification?. Later, as a result of further parenting and learning about social and cultural values, the superego is developed. Superego could be described as an internalised parent as the child is starting to be aware of what is good and what is bad without external reminder – e.

g. I must not hit because it hurts. If the behaviour trespasses the imperatives of the superego, the individual will feel guilt as they are now aware that their behaviour was bad (this is referred as ? conscience? ). Apart from judging conscience, superego has got a notion of an ego-ideal to which it will strive. When ego demonstrates good behaviour the ego-ideal part of superego will reward this, e. g. feeling good after doing something for someone else even when external praise is not present.

Even though Freud has been criticised for basing his description and explanations of development on sexual motives, some of his theoretical concepts are now widely accepted (e. g. the concept of unconscious mind – id and most of superego). One could say that orientation on children? s needs might be partly inspired by Freud? s ideas about the dynamics of id, ego and superego. Too strong superego and suppressed unconscious id will lead to many problems in adult life, where individual tries to live mainly by what is required by the outside world rather than allowing themselves to follow own desires.

In early years healthy development of ego can be supported by putting the child and their needs in the centre of our attention; activities and work with children is individualized and child-led, yet still well planned and safe. For example, in our setting we might notice that a particular child enjoys opening and closing doors, gates, etc. Instead of completely discouraging him from doing that we might identify situations when it might be appropriate for him/her to do so and explain the necessary things around it in a child-friendly way (e.

g. : When everybody has got their shoes on, you can open the door, Henry. , We will keep the gate closed now, because we are going to play in the yard now. , Mind your fingers when closing the door – you could close them in and that would really hurt. , etc. ). If we say ? no? to children it is good to make sure that the child knows about the reasons behind our decisions (even though they might find it hard initially anyway, they are more likely to come round and understand it in their own time).

Humanistic theory of motivation and personality – Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) Maslow studied motivation in people and came up with what is now known as Hierarchy of Needs. Maslow divided the needs into five categories (physiological, safety, love/belonging, esteem, self-actualisation) and put them in hierarchical order from the most essential and basic needs to higher-order needs. Maslow argues that it is necessary to fulfil the needs from from the bottom of the hierarchy first to be able to meet the needs of higher order.

Only when all the other lower needs are met, an individual can focus on fulfilling the highest needs of self-actualisation, such as creativity, problem solving, morality, etc. In our practice we are aware, that when a child is for example overtired and hungry (the most basic physiological needs), there is no space to try to fit in other things, e. g. ?wait for your turn? , ? say please? ,…. (which would be working on their higher order needs, such as love/belonging (friendship) or esteem (respect for others, respect by others).

This child at that stage needs to be fed and put to sleep as soon as possible and other input has to wait until the child is again able to tune to it/ receive it. Social cognitive theory Social cognitive theory has its roots in behaviouristic approach. However, Albert Bandura (born 1925), even though accepting learning by conditioning, argued that lots of learning happens through social observations (? observational learning? ). Observational learning is when children copy what other children or adults do; in comparison to conditioning, observational learning happens spontaneously and often without the need for reinforcement.

Cognitive abilities seem to play an important role in observational learning as children need to be capable to notice the activity itself as well as remember it accurately. As staff we need to be mindful in the way we act and interact in front of children as they are likely to copy our behaviour. In accordance with the social cognitive theory we try to set good examples to the children in our settings by showing good manners and being courteous to them as well as to one another.

Behaviourist approach to learning – operant conditioning Operant conditioning is based on classical conditioning (I. P. Pavlov; J. B. Watson), which teaches that certain behaviour/ reaction can be connected with a stimulus through conditioning, e. g. fear of cats after a bad experience with a cat. F. B. Skinner (1904-1990) however took this a bit further and through experiments mainly with pigeons and rats showed that learning can be strengthen by reinforcements, such as positive reinforcement (praise, sticker, attention, etc.

), negative reinforcement (this is removing something which is negative from the situation so it no longer poses a ? threat? or causes negative emotions and the whole experience becomes more positive, e. g. child does want to play with a toy because it is scared of the noises it makes – by switching the sound off, the child is able to explore the toy) and punishers (negative consequence which is likely to prevent individuals to repeat their behaviour – e. g. touching hot iron).

Skinner researched most effective ways to retain the learnt behaviour and he found out that even though continuous positive reinforcement is good at the beginning of the learning, later unpredictable positive reinforcement keeps the learnt behaviour in place for longer period of time. This is because even though the reward comes frequently, we are not sure when it is going to come next and therefore we keep doing the behaviour. At our setting we might be using operant conditioning for example when we are helping a child to potty train.

First every sitting on the potty, regardless of results will be rewarded. When the child gets into the habit of sitting on the potty, then only successful potty session will be rewarded with a sticker (however praise for trying when unsuccessful remains). When starting to do regularly this stickers might gradually become praise and sticker will be awarded if the child successfully asks for potty when they need it. Behaviourist approach to learning – Classical conditioning J. B. Watson (1878 – 1958) followed I. P.

Pavlov? s work on classical conditioning with animals (dogs salivating when food arrived became then salivating even at the mere sight of the bowl; Pavlov took this further by conditioning completely unrelated food stimulus, such as bell or light, which after regular presence at the mealtimes would later on its own initiate the salivating response in dogs). Watson showed that classical conditioning is possible in humans as well (famous Little Albert experiment, where a baby was conditioned to have fear of rats).

Classical conditioning is not really used in practice as a active way of teaching, however its theory can be used for observational purposes (e. g. recognising when sucking thumb signals hunger etc. ). Social pedagogy Social pedagogy is a discipline which brings together theory and practice in order to assure the best and holistic way of supporting children in their development and education. The overall aim of social pedagogy is to give children and young people the best possible chances for their future lives.

In accordance with social pedagogy the Early Years Foundation Stage Framework (EYFS) has been devised to capture the development in early years and to help professionals to monitor, plan and support effectively individual development. For better and focused understanding the development has been divided into seven areas, out of which three are recognised as prime areas (Personal, Social and Emotional Development; Communication and Language; Physical Development) and four are described as specific areas of development (Literacy; Mathematics; Understanding the World; Expressive Arts and Design).

The support the professionals can provide is differentiated into helpful advice in positive relationship and suggestions for enabling environments. In EYFS we can see influence of Piaget? s work in enabling environments where the focus is predominantly on individual? s own experience. We can also strongly identify the theory of ? zone of proximal development? by Vygotsky (cognitive development) in EYFS as we can easily identify where children are in their development, what is the next developmental stage for them and how we can support this next step.

023 Personal and external factors influencing development B3 Personal Factors: Give ONE explanation of a positive influence on the development of children and young people Health status: given by genetic predispositions as well as environmental factors, such as diet, pollution, stress, etc. If obesity is genetically passed on in the family than healthy diet together with developing positive attitude towards regular exercise will help the child to maintain a good health. Disability: Physical impairment, such as missing or underdeveloped limb Wheel chair together with barrier free environment (e.

g. lifts, ramps, low sinks, etc. ) will help to support independence of an individual. Sensory impairment: visual impairments, hearing impairments, death-blindness, When working with individuals with visual impairment, we can use the other senses to compensate and provide necessary stimulation which helps the development, e. g. using special toys/ learning material which uses touch and sound as a mean of gaining information. However, if there is some vision left (which usually there is), the environment can be adjusted by using contrast colours, non-reflective material, good lighting, etc.

Learning difficulties: Dyslexia, dyspraxia, dysgraphia, dysortographia, ADHD, ADD Children with ADHD benefit from having a regular routine. Activities needs to be short and well planned with simple and easy to follow instructions. Hands-on activities with regular physical exercise and lots of praise are essential. External Factors: Poverty and deprivation: poor diet, inadequate housing, lack of education, lack of access to play and leisure, low aspirations and expectations Good education can help the individual to break from the poverty and secure them a better brighter future.

Family environment/background: neglecting parents, abusive parents, parents with alcohol or other drug-taking problems, ill parents who are not able to provide adequate environment for their children, etc. Parents who are ill and no longer able to fully provide for their children could be provided with carers who would help with the overall smooth running of the household, caring for needs of the disabled parent and the needs of the children, while keeping the family itself together.

Personal choices: from certain age children/ young people make some decisions for themselves which can have effect on their development, e. g. taking drugs, changing their diet, etc. To help to prevent drug-taking it is important to support the development of a positive self-image and healthy self-esteem; education and raising awareness of dangers of drug-abuse is also a helpful preventative measure. Looked after/care status: children in residential care, in foster families, in their own family but having care status (they are the responsibility of local authorities).

If children are being fostered it is beneficial if siblings can stay together. Education: Educational system, through family itself, through other groups (religious groups, sport groups, hobbies and interests, etc. ) Finding out strengths of an individual (which do not have to necessarily academic) and building upon those to build a healthy self-esteem and recognition of self-worth – this can help to compe with other weaker areas in a positive way. 023 Task C Report Produce a short report in the form of an induction pack for new staff at a setting, covering the following. a.

Give two examples of assessment methods that could be used to monitor a child/young person’s development. (Ref 3. 1) b. Give three examples of why sometimes child/young person’s development does not follow the expected pattern. (Ref 3. 2) c. Give one explanation of how disability can impact and affect development. (Ref 3. 3) d. Give three examples of different types of intervention that could promote positive outcomes for the child/young person, where development is not following the expected pattern. (Ref 3. 4) a. In our setting we use several assessment methods to monitor our children?

s development. The most used one is a short free description on sticky labels – these capture a specific short observation in a specific area of development (e. g. Physical Development); the date and the identified area/ areas get recorded on the label. This method of recording information is useful for gathering evidence of the progress of development in specific areas and building a developmental profile of an individual child. We also use specific observation sheets, on which we capture a more detailed and complex observation.

In the next section on the sheet the observation is evaluated and areas of the development are identified (often more than one). In the last section we identify the next steps for the child and how we can help the child to achieve that. We have two types of observation sheets in our settings following this format – one is purely written observation, the other one is a photo observation sheet. This method of recording and evaluation allows us not only to add to the developmental profile of each child but also to plan effectively to further support the child? s development. b.

There are many possible reason why at times the development might not follow the expected pattern. Apart from the most obvious ones, such as disabilities and special learning needs, the development can get affected by external factors, such as environmental reasons, cultural reasons, social reasons; and specific individual reasons, such as emotional reasons, physical reasons and communication difficulties. Environmental reasons: Among environmental reasons which may affect child? s development is for example where and in what conditions a child lives and what type of school they attend.

Social reasons: There might be big differences between children in terms of wealth of their families, family status and family structure (big family with strong bonds in comparison to divorced parents with negative mutual relationship), education of parents as well as their ability to tune themselves to the needs of their children – all of these will affect the way children will be developing. Communication skills: Slower developing communication skills have got potential to negatively influence the development in other areas.

The inability to effectively express themselves may result in frustrations in children and aggressive behaviour as well as consequently lower literacy skills. Similar effects can be observed in children whose families? language is not the dominant language of the country. If the dominant language is not fully acquired the child may significantly struggle once at school. c. Disability can affect more than one area of development as children can become frustrated and their self-esteem can be lowered. The attitudes of low expectations and stereotyping by others will also have a secondary negative impact on a child? s development.

d. There are several ways how difficulties in development can be recognised, monitored and positively supported. Educational establishments will have appointed SENCO, a person who is responsible for identification and organising further support for children with special needs. If appropriate Educational psychologist will be contacted to make a full assessment and recommendations in how to support individuals in education (behavioural problems and learning difficulties). Suggested interventions may be discussed with parents and with learning support assistants and individual educational plan might be written up and followed.

If there are any issues with speech and communication, Speech and language therapist will be consulted – the outcomes of the assessment will lead to a specific plan of action, often involving regular contact in which special exercises will be explained, practised and taught to children and their parents/carers/other professionals for them to be able to support the children outside the sessions. If a child? s physical development is affected, physiotherapist can provide help with special exercises and massages to aid the physical development, maximize the range of movement and develop the appropriate movement control.

Task D Report Produce a report which explains the following: a. Why is early identification of speech, language or communication delay important for a child/young person’s well-being? (Ref 4. 1) b. What are the potential risks for the child/young person’s well-being if any speech, language or communication delay is not identified early? (Ref 4. 1) c. Analyse the importance of early identification of the potential risks of late recognition to speech, language and communication delays and disorders. (Ref 4. 1) d.

Who might be involved in a multi-agency team to support a child/young person’s speech, language and communication development? (Ref 4. 2) e. How, when and why would a multi-agency approach be applied? (Ref 4. 3) f. Give four different examples of play opportunities and describe how you would put them into practice to support the development of a child/young person’s speech, language and communication. (Ref 4. 3) a. Early identification of the language and communication difficulties is important as it can support the development to prevent further (secondary) impact on other areas.

Also, as the brains in young children have not finished their development, the earlier we can intervene, the better prospects of success we have. b. Problems in language and communication can have a negative effect on other areas of development, such as cognitive and social development. Children with language and communication difficulties are more likely to struggle at school in learning to read and write, which can have further negative impact not only on other subjects but more importantly on their self-esteem. Children with such problems can become gradually isolated. c.

Early identification of the potential risks of late recognition to speech, language and communication delays and disorders is very important in terms of putting the most appropriate interventions in place to support the development and benefit the children? s needs. Well timed and well tailored intervention has got the potential to optimize the development and to minimize potential negative impact for other areas of development. d. In the multi-agency team to support the child with speech, language and communication there will be the child? s GP or a health visitor, who will make a referral to a speech and language specialist.

If there is a suspicion that the communication difficulties are connected with learning difficulties Educational Psychologist will be consulted. When it is decided on the type of intervention needed, the parents, the educational setting professionals and the rest of the team should work together in order to implement the chosen intervention in order to meet the needs of the child. e. Multi-agency approach is used when parents and/ or other professionals (such as GP, early years settings, etc. ) have recognised that a child is in need of additional help to aid the development.

Different professionals are involved in the assessment of the needs (e. g. GP to assess potential hearing or other impairments) and speech and language therapist devises the best possible individual support. Multi-agency approach brings together different fields of expertise to assure the best possible outcome for the child. f. There are many informal opportunities how children? s communication and language development can be supported. These might often be more effective than formal exercises as they naturally meet the child in they world of play, making it more motivating and fun.

Nursery rhymes and songs – Children enjoy joining in nursery rhymes and songs. These are short and memorable and their rhythmical pattern make them perfect little exercises for developing language, pronunciation and fluency (good practice when dealing with stutter). Books are perfect for developing passive and active vocabulary, understanding meaning of words and learning correct sentence structure informally. Books are a wonderful way to spark children? s imagination as well as teaching them to express themselves about the world around them by providing the relevant vocabulary.

Pictures in books make it possible for children from the earliest age to actively engage with the story as well as to engage in a dialogue with another person. Dressing up and role play again helps the child in an informal way to engage in talking and communication with others whilst enjoying the imaginative play. Puppets are a fantastic way how to involve children in communication through play. Children are fascinated by puppets and enjoy adults taking active part in their play, which again allows for an opportunity to develop language and communication in a fun way. 023 Task E Complete table

Complete the table on the next page, showing how the different types of transitions can affect children and young people’s development and evaluate how having positive relationships during this period of transition would be of benefit. Additional Guidance Different types are: a. Emotional, affected by personal experience, e. g. bereavement, entering/leaving care. b. Physical, e. g. moving to a new educational establishment, a new home/locality, from one activity to another. c. Physiological e. g. puberty, long-term medical conditions. d. Intellectual, e. g. moving from pre-school to primary, to post-primary. (Ref 5. 1, 5. 2)

Give ONE specific example of a transition Give ONE possible effect on children and young people’s development Evaluate the benefit of a positive relationship during this period of transition ~ provide ONE example Emotional: Bereavement Depression which may affect sleep pattern, children may become lethargic and less interested in engaging in any activities which may affect they social, emotional and cognitive development Positive relationship with open communication and listening skills allows for a child to ask difficult questions and share their worries and sadness, to talk over difficult memories and anxieties about the future.

This may help with overcoming the past and the sadness. Physical: Moving home Moving home may effect the children social development as they may lose previous friends and find themselves unable to fit in new friendship groups. Some children might start having food issues, such as overeating to deal with anxieties. This can affect their emotional, social and physical development. Positive relation can provide a helping hand with dealing with the new situation while supporting the self-esteem and encouraging the confidence in a young person.

Positive relationship can also act as model of skills of how to establish a new relationship. Physiological: Gaining a physical disability – e. g. lost limb Withdrawal – children may become very solitary, unable and unwilling to join in with their peers, which can affect their physical, emotional, social as well as cognitive development. Positive relationship will communicate acceptance and healthy support in dealing with a life-changing situation; this should help in dealing with difficulties as they come Intellectual:

Moving from pre-school to primary school Lack of concentration and motivation as the child might feel overwhelmed by new routines and new demands which they might find very difficult – this may affect their natural cognitive development and they might regress into safer younger stage of development. Positive relationship will allow for a child to feel safe, valued and as achieving (in their own pace) by identifying the appropriate approach of working with the child with the sensitivity to their specific needs and pace of development.

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