00167452_ Abdul Rehman Shoro _ BADM Assignment _ Spring Essay

Business Analysis and Decision Making Assignment

April 2019


Student Name :AbdulRehman ShoroNCC Student ID :00167452University of Worcester Student ID: 19010467

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00167452_ Abdul Rehman Shoro _ BADM Assignment _ Spring Essay
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Statement & Confirmation —————————————— 01

Front Cover ————————————————————– 02

Table of Contents —————————————————— 03

Task-1 a) Functional Requirements-Elicitation: ————-

b) Communication hurdles: ——————————

Task-2 Entity Relationship model: ——————————-

Task-3 Role of Management Information System (MIS)

in controlling business ———————————————–

Bibliography ———————————————————— 17

Task-1 a) Functional Requirements-Elicitation:

Requirement-elicitation is the process of taking into account by researching, gathering and exploring the set of under-pinning requirements in the system by the users, customers or other relevant stakeholders.

It is very much crucial process, because based upon its intensity of accuracy, the fate of the product depends upon. As the companies employ financial and non-financial resources to come up with some kind of a system or any other similar product, so much diligence is required in development of these systems. The systems development process starts with the first and foremost step, which is called requirement elicitation. It is further divided into, Functional-requirements and non-functional requirements.

Functional-requirements are those requirements which are of direct concern to the user where as Non-functional-requirements have to be built-in for the proper functioning of the system.

It poses challenging questions, such as to think about whether they are the design-features, hardware/software specifications, system-functions, anything user wants in the system. So for this purpose, a strong communication bond is needed to be developed between the developer and the client. So nothings remains in grey area.

Documentation: This is the process of writing/noting down the important aspects related to the system or to be cared of such as certain laws which are to be obeyed. It is thus the snapshot of the present-situation, based upon this future system will be made.

Interviews: In this process a set of questions are asked to the concerned persons face-to-face and their answers determine the framework of the under-way system. This also helps to take into account the preferences of the users, their skills-set, knowledge or some other thing worthy to be noted.

Meetings: In meetings both ways weighted-dialogues take place where initial aspects pertaining to the system-requirements are lighted upon. So this gives open-space both-sided, therefore problems are apparent by this and mutual-discussions and efforts are made to explore solutions. Some kind of consensus develops by the end.

Workshops/brainstorming: Every participant from both-side loaded with their respective knowledge and skill-set ponder upon a topic and come out with innovative, effective and efficient idea. This activity if done in structured-way ensures optimal success by the end.

Questionnaires: A set of questions to be sent to the concerned persons and analyzing their answers. The questionnaires design is very much important, as it is not face-to-face unlike the interview-session, so it should be prepared diligently so that the optimal benefit could be extracted out from the responder.

Shadowing: It involves hand-on-experience of the actual place where the system is to be deployed. Every-day experiences are taken into account, which will create valuable insights to be assimilated in the system.

Prototyping: This is a modeling-technique, in which the potential user is shown that how the system will be, the potential-user can point-out the places or the aspects which need to be improved.

Walkthroughs: In this technique the potential-user is taken through the under-way system step-by-step and to facilitate his/her input. It is good because it will save much effort and time which usually get wasted as a result of non-involvement of the clients and then making modifications as per their instructions afterwards. (AnAr, 2018)

The suggested Requirement-elicitation methods, for DineFine are,


Documenting the flow of processes/steps in the Dine-fine service-space related to order-processing, expected real-time coordination between DineFine warehouses and designated partners, social-media platform-marketing initiatives and other online targeted marketing campaigns.

Advantages: It actually provides the base for decision-making, so facilitates the decision-making process by recurring analysis for required items/rules/policies.

Disadvantages: Could be much time-consuming


Conducting interviews with existing stakeholders such as,

Higher Management about their target expectations and their vision regarding this initiative.

Departmental-Managers such as IT, Marketing, Sales, Operations managers etc. eliciting their inputs with respect to their departmental-intuitions.

Field-workers or the front-line staff, from every department because they are the ones, who have to be in contact with the customer and meeting their needs via app.

Customers: Customers are the one who will decide the fate of the DineFine services and they are the ultimate ones in deciding and rating its quality. So a short planned question interviews can be conducted at partner-restaurants.

Partner restaurants: Partner restaurants are direct stakeholders, as they are responsible to cater the demands of their nearby DineFine warehouses.

Advantages: Keeping relevance in questions-series, as the questions are pre-planned so not much waste of time in asking questions.

Disadvantages: Interview’s biased-ness can affect the process adversely


Prototyping is a good way to explore and create what is imagined in real with small and negligible sunk-cost. Prototyping of app and website is not an issue these days, there is an established concept of interactive-prototyping and then upgrading to MVP which stands for Minimum Viable product, which just carries enough features to satisfy the need and at last launching it as a final product where the early-adopters views are elicited in further progressing development. Website prototyping is also easy, it could be done by either making captivating-presentations, coded (HTML) prototyping or using as specialized prototyping-software.


It gives a snap-shot of the system/product how it will be working onwards. It creates confidence and trust about the company’s capabilities. It is comparatively cost-efficient and effective due to lowered developmental-costs.


Much time-consuming activity, in addition to this, it requires to use the resources, which will be wasted once the objective of prototype doesn’t get fulfilled. So it creates doubling of process, which is definitely costly to the company.

After requirement-elicitation, there is another step to prioritize the elicited requirements by using widely-used model called as MoSCoW method. This is carried on in the collaborative way with the stakeholders. Breaking it down, M stands for Must, S stands for Should, C stands for Could and W stands for Won’t. Because it is again very much hard for to go through each and every elicited requirement in same fashion, so creating priorities will keep each and every thing timely and in subsequent steps.

b) Communication Hurdles between IT and other depts.

Communication in the organization is very much crucial in the success of the individual projects which ultimately guarantees sustainable success for the organization. In complex projects such as App and Website development in DineFine case, there is the involvement of a lot of concerned department managers and their subordinates, because the ultimate product is directly related with the daily working of all these persons. So they have to be present to facilitate with their inputs, in the initiation of idea till the proper launch. Since all of them hail from different backgrounds educationally and professionally, mounting different set of experiences, which entails their difference of opinions and perceptions on a single thing, each one has his /her own intuitive mind. So there is much probability for the conflicts to be developed along with the process. is much higher.

For example during the development-phase there is the process to test the new code in order to analyze its effect on old functions, it is called as Regression-testing, but IT people say it as REGR and managers have totally no idea what to and how to regress.

Block of codes are known as functions in IT lingo, but they could be confused with project-management term, functions. There is difference of understanding when an IT person says function is done and a manager says something about doing of function.

IT Developers work by release date, which is deadline when code is to be tested, it is somehow a deadline in managerial lingo.

These issues could easily be addressed by initiation of cross-learning culture in the organization, such as making incumbent upon the purely department managers to learn IT skills from a lot of MOOCs. Similarly, there should be a policy for the staff if they cross-learn, they are incentivized and appreciated. Team-work spirit is to be made visible by making collaborative-teams.

Task 2 Entity Relationship Diagram:

Entity: Customer:


1- # Customer No. ID (Membership no.) (Unique key attribute)

2- Customer type (Individual / Corporate)

3- Customer-Location

4- Customer Name

Entity: Order:


1- # Order No. (Unique key attribute)

2- Order Quantity

3- Way of Order placed

4- Order Type

5- Customer ID # (Foreign key attribute)

Entity: Dining mode:


1-Table De Haute

2- Restaurant experience

3- Order No. # (Foreign key attribute)

Entity: Depot:


1- # Depot No. (Unique key attribute)

2- Depot Kitchen

3- Partner restaurants

4- Depot Order no. (Generated following customer order no.)

Entity: Restaurant:


1- # Restaurant ID # (Unique key attribute)

2- Depot order No. # (Foreign key attribute)

Entity: Delivery Driver (To collect from):


1- Delivery Driver ID (Unique key attribute)

2- Designated Depots

3- Partner Restaurants

Entity: Area:


1- Area ID (Unique key attribute)

2- Depot IDs (Foreign key attribute)

Task 3 Role of Management Information System (MIS) in controlling business

Management Information system, abbreviated as MIS is an integrated information system, which encompasses the information coming from range of business functions, to be collected, coordinated, controlled, interpreted and visualized for the decision-making purpose, thus facilitating the managerial processes. The role of piece information in a business organization is very crucial to the success of a business. This single piece can change the fate of a business from just a small enterprise to a multi-billion dollar generating corporation. In an ordinary business there is a constant and sometimes over-expected flow of information into a business. If there is no system to store and to convert it into beneficial information, then it will be going to be wasted.

Decision-making is a very much crucial task of a business, in nut shell it is the decision, which makes or ruins the business, so it means that decision should be taken with due-diligence and each and everything should come into the focus so that the scope of decision expands, for this purpose MIS helps the decision-makers of the company to have bird eye-view over the company operations and financials, so they can make decisions quickly and can easily control the business.

Since it is the integrated system, so action performed by one business-function automatically intimates the other. So it ensures no internal communication-lapse ever occurs. It was previously an issue, there was probability of the initiative taken by one business- component to remain hidden in eyes of other components, which then used to create organizational-conflicts, so this issue got solved much easily by MIS application.

In addition to the internal communication, it also optimizes the speed of external communication. External communication just like internal communication plays great role in dealing with stakeholders of the business. Just strengthening of internal communication will make the organization cut from outwards

There are many quantitative analysis techniques, which are very much complex and time-consuming if done manually, but they are much relevant to the acquired business-data, so no one in organization is capable to do manually but MIS are usually built-in with a lot of quantitative techniques to be used in decision-making.

Information is kept in digital-form, so it is accessible easily in any possible format and easily retrieve-able even after much long time.

Customer-reviews play great role in the success of the business. They are really a great flow of information, as they point out loop-holes in the overall good or the service. Plus they show peoples likes /dislikes and suggestions. These sets of information can help in designing future range of products. This is definitely a great input in designing efficient and effective targeted marketing campaigns.

MIS due to its holistic nature has built-in integrated monitoring mechanism, which ensures that each and every activity takes place as per expected particulars. This strictness ensures the consistency in business processes, which is the component of quality management and supervision. In this way it highlights the performing and comparatively non-performing areas of the business.

Apart from tangible benefits evolving out due to MIS, there are a lot of intangible benefits which strategically appear in long-run for example, Customer satisfaction and strengthening the base the for competitive advantage of the business.

MIS has also direct influence over the company’s Human resource, which is much crucial resource to the company. As each and every organizational activity is being recorded, in the system in form of inputs. So the employees are much concerned with their own image before the management. So they apply prudent approach and responsible behaviour. Plus there is no extra effort required from the staff side, to collect the data manually, handle it and make it interpretable. (Aria Sena, 2012)

Key Performance Indicator, (KPI) is a performance-measurement tool, which helps the organization firstly to decide a particular value as a standard and then across the time-period, comparing the actual value with the standard to find out whether it performed favorably or adversely. MIS also generates a number of KPIs, which are much helpful for control of the business. Following range of departmental KPIs can be generated from MIS,

Finance and Investment Function:

Cost of Sales, Earning before Tax and Interest, Operating profit, Net Profit,

Return on Investment (ROI), Return on Capital Employed (ROCE), Variance Analysis for Standard and Actual costing etc.

Sales Function:

Sales growth percentage monthly and yearly basis, no. of customers in a month/ year, Lead-to-sale conversion rate, Sales per representative

HR Function:

Employees Turn-over rate, Employees absenteeism rate, response to open positions, employee satisfaction scale

Service Function:

Cost of providing of service, Cost of Quality, Overall Equipment Effectiveness

(Karlson, 2016)


Andreas Rivera (2019) Tips for improving communication between IT and management. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 23 April 2019]

AnAr Solutions Pvt. Ltd. (2019). Top 5 Techniques for Requirements Elicitation. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 23 April 2019].

Aria Sena (2012) Benefits of Management Information System for Business Development [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 23 April 2019]

Karola Karlson (2016) 136 Key Performance Indicators Examples. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 24 April 2019].

Jim WoodRuff (2018) What Are the Benefits of a Management Information System? [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 23 April 2019]

NH Learning Solutions (2016) 3 Ways to Improve Communication Between IT and Other Departments. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 23 April 2019

Wikipedia (2019) Performance indicator. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 24 April 2019].

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